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2018年3月4日GRE考试阅读真题机经解析

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发表于 2018-10-25 17:59:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
passage 3
A decrease in face-to-face social contact can precipitate depression. Time spent using the Internet cannot be spent in face-to-face social contact, so psychologists have speculated that sharply increasing Internet use can cause depression. Studies of regular Internet users have found a significantly higher incidence of depression among those who had recently doubled the amount of time they spent using the Internet than among those whose use had not increased. Hence, the psychologists’ speculation is correct."
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. In general, the reason that the people in the studies had doubled their Internet use was not that they had earlier experienced a significant decrease in opportunities for face-to-face social contact.
B. A sharp decrease in face-to-face social contact is the only change in daily activity that can lead to an increased incidence of depression.
C. Using the Internet presents no opportunities for people to increase the amount of face-to-face social contact they experienced in their daily lives.
D. Regular Internet users who are depressed will experience an immediate improvement in mood if they sharply decrease the amount of time they spend on the Internet.
E. Before they doubled the time they spent on the Internet, the people who did so were already more prone to depression than are regular Internet users in general.
passage 4
African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.
The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.
1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
A. African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the materialistic.
B. African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual and the environment.
C. African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.
D. The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African American drama.
E. The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.
2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the
A. internal rather than the external life of her characters
B. madness of reality rather than the effects of reality
C. effects of materialism on African American minds and souls
D. relationship between naturalism and the human spirit
E. effects that her characters have on the environment
3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the authors ass**ion that Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?
A. Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nev**heless unfamiliar to the average viewer or reader.
B. Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United States.
C. Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.
D. Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.
E. Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.
passage59
Recent studies of ancient Maya water management have found that the urban architecture of some cities was used to div** rainfall runoff into gravity-fed systems of interconnected reservoirs. In the central and southern May Lowlands, this kind of water control was necessary to support large populations throughout the year due to the scarcity of perennial surface water and the seasonal availability of rainfall. Some scholars argue that the concentration of water within the urban core of these sites provided a centralized source of political authority for Maya elites based largely on controlled water access. Such an argument is plausible, however, it is less useful for understanding the sociopolitical implications of water use and control in other, water-rich parts of the Maya region.
1. The author of the passage implies which of the following about the political importance of the type of urban water management system described in the passage?
A. Because the system was centralized, it allowed political control over a widely scattered population.
B. The knowledge required to design and maintain the system became the pretext for Maya elites’ political authority.
C. By selectively limiting access to water, Maya elites used the system to curb challenges to their authority
D. The system is not sufficient to explain the sources of centralized political power in all parts of the Maya region
E. The system’s continued maintenance required political authorities to ex** control over an increasing proportion of economic resources.
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the water management systems in the central and southern Maya Lowlands?
A. They were implemented in part because of the prevailing pattern of rainfall.
B. They were an integral part of lowland cities’ architecture.
C. They were needed because of insufficient resources such as ponds, rivers and lakes in the lowlands
passage102
A divide between aesthetic and technical considerations has played a crucial role in map** and cartographic scholarship. Since nineteenth century cartographers, for instance, understood themselves as technicians who did not care about visual effects, while others saw themselves as landscape painters. That dichotomy structured the discipline of the history of cartography. Until the 1980s, in what Blakemore and Harley called “the Old is Beautiful Paradigm,” scholars largely focused on maps made before 1800, marveling at their beauty and sometimes regretting the decline of the pre-technical age. Early map** was considered art while modern cartography was located within the realm of engineering utility. Alpers, however, has argued that this boundary would have puzzled mapmakers in the seventeenth century, because they considered themselves to be visual engineers.
1. According to the passage, Alpers would say that the assumptions underlying the “paradigm” were
A. inconsistent with the way some mapmakers prior to 1800 understand their own work
B. dependent on a seventeenth-century conception of map** visual engineering
C. unconcerned with the difference between the aesthetic and technical questions of map
D. insensitive to divisions among cartographers working in the period after 1800
E. supported by the demonstrable technical superiority of map** made after 1800
2. It can be inferred from the passage that, beginning in the 1980s, historians of cartography
A. placed greater emphasis on the beauty of maps made after 1800
B. expanded their range of study to include more material created after 1800
C. grew more sensitive to the way mapmakers prior to 1800 conceived of their work
D. came to see the visual details of maps as aesthetic objects rather than practical cartographic aids
E. reduced the attention they paid to the technical aspects of mapmakin

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