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2018年3月17日GRE考试阅读真题机经解析

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发表于 2018-10-25 18:04:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2018年3月17日GRE考试阅读真题机经解析
The history of the transmission of ancient Roman texts prior to invention of the printing press is reconstructed from evidence both internal and external to the texts themselves. Internal evidence is used to reconstruct the relationship of the surviving manuscripts of a Roman text to one another, as represented in a modern stemma codicum: a diagram depicting the genealogical relationship of surviving manuscripts and those the stemmas editor believes existed at one time. Stemma are scholar’s only road maps to textual connections based on internal evidence, but they may paint a distorted picture of reality because they diagram the relationships of only those manuscripts known or inferred today. If surviving copies are few, the stemma perforce brings into proximity manuscripts that were widely separated in time and place of origin. Conversely, the stemma can also bestow a semblance of separation on manuscripts written within a few months of one another or even in the same room.
One type of external evidence that may shed light on the transmission of Roman texts is the availability of a work in the Middle Ages, when many classical texts were circulated. Too often, though, too much is inferred about a particular works circulation in the Middle Ages from the number of manuscripts surviving today. When a work survives in a single manuscript copy, editors call the manuscript, rather glamorously, the lone survivor–implying that all its (presumably rare) companions were destroyed sometime early in the Middle Ages by pillaging barbarians. It is equally possible that the work survived far into the Middle Ages in numerous copies in monastic libraries but were unnoticed due to lack of interest. The number of extant manuscripts, however few, really does not allow scholars to infer how many ancient Latin manuscripts of a work survived to the ninth, the twelfth, or even the fifteenth century.
Quotations from a Roman text by a medieval author are another category of external evidence: but does the appearance of a rare word or grammatical construction—or even a short passage—really indicate a medieval author’s firsthand knowledge of this or that ancient work, or does such usage instead derive from some intermediate source, such as a grammar book or a popular style manual? Medieval authors do quote extensively from ancient authors; while such quotations provide some evidence of the works medieval circulation, as well as define its evolving fortunes and the various uses to which it was put, they may be far less useful in reconstructing the text of an ancient work.
Much as scholars want to look for overall patterns and formulate useful generalizations, the transmission of each text is a different story and each manuscripts history is unique. Scholars must be careful not to draw conclusions that go beyond what the evidence can support.
1.The passage is primarily concerned with which of the following?
A. tracing c**ain changes in the methods used to study the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
B. contrasting two types of evidence used in investigating the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
C. outlining c**ain difficulties associated with studying the transmission of ancient Roman texts.
D. advocating the use of one type of evidence about ancient Roman texts over the use of another type.
E. explaining the development and potential uses and drawbacks of stemma in the study of ancient Roman texts.
2. As described in the passage, a stemma is most closely analogous to which of the following
A. a department store inventory list that excludes some departments
B. a map from which a large section has been torn off
C. a chronology that includes only major historical events
D. a family tree in which some generations are not recorded
E. a government organizational chart from which some agencies are omitted
Consider each of the choices separately and select all that apply.
3. In its discussion of external evidence, the passage suggests which of the following about manuscripts of ancient Roman texts during the Middle Ages?
A. It is possible that fewer manuscripts were destroyed by barbarians in the early Middle Ages than scholars frequently suppose.
B. Additional copies of some so-called lone survivor manuscripts may have existed well into the Middle Ages.
C. If an ancient Roman text is quoted in a work by a medieval author, then it is likely that at least one manuscript copy of that text survived into the Middle Ages.
4. Click on the sentence in the first paragraph that suggests that scholars might be led to underestimate the extent of the connection between c**ain manuscripts.

Ralph Ellison was passionately interested in visual arts. He immersed himself in Harlem’s art scene in the 1930s, even apprenticing with sculptor Richmond Barthe for a time. Yet he was wary of projects aiming to provide a visual rendering of his novel Invisible Man. He reluctantly allowed Franklin Library to publish two illustrated versions of the novel but found the results disappointing and repeatedly rejected proposed film versions of the book. Despite his involvement in visual arts, Ellison insisted that only language could capture the complexity of American identity. This complexity consisted of the tension arising from the collision of the United States’ written ideals, as outlined in the founding documents, and the historical and contemporary experience molding the national consciousness.
1. It can be inferred that the author mentions Ellison’s apprenticeship with Richmond Barthe primarily in order to
A. show that Ellison drew upon some aspects of the visual arts in developing his ideas for Invisible Man
B. show that Ellison’s claim for the superiority of the language drive from his experience with other are forms
C. establish that Ellison had experience with an art form that interested many leading figures of the 1930s Harlem art scene.
D. suggest that in the 1930s the Harlem art scene provided an environment in which artists were likely to work in several media
E. qualify Ellison’s reservations about visual renderings of his work by showing that he was not indifferent to visual art
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the “tension”?
A. It partly resulted from social injustices that Ellison worked to alleviate.
B. It came to Ellison’s attention partly a a result of his experience with proposed film versions of Invisible Man.
C. Ellison thought that it could not be adequately represented by sculpture.
D. Ellison believed that it arose from contradictions within the United States’ founding ideals.
E. Ellison felt that it was an issue that could not adequately be addressed through the depiction of fictional characters.

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