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2016年3月SAT考试写作部分真题回忆

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发表于 2018-11-1 15:36:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
据考生回忆,此次新SAT首考的作文题的阅读文章源自E.J. Dionne Jr.于2013年7月3日发表在TheWashington Post (《华盛顿邮报》)文章名为A Call for National Service.



Adapted from E.J. Dionne Jr., "A Call for National Service"© 2013 by Washington Post. Originally published July 03, 2013.

Here is the sentence in the Declaration of Independence we always remember: “We hold these truthsto be self-evident, that all men are created equal. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness."



And here is the sentence we oftenforget: “And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our Sacred Honor."



 作者在前两段引用了(allusion)独立宣言的原文,从权威的角度唤起读者对历史文献所赋予公民的责任的反思,并引出下第四段中要说明的社会问题。



This, the very last sentence of the document, is what makes the better-remembered sentence possible. One speaks of our rights. The other addresses our boligations. The freedoms we cherish are self-evident but not self-executing. The Founders pledge something "to each other," the commonly overlooked clause in the Declaration's final pronouncedment.



作者针对独立宣言中某个词汇(diction)进行深度挖掘,尤其使用了“self-evident but not self-executing”来提醒读者对自由精神的狭义解读的问题。



We find ourselves, 237 years after the Founders declared us a new nation, in a season of discontent, even surliness, about the experiment they launched. We are sharply divided over the very meaning of our founding documents, and we are more likely to invoke the word "we" in the context of "us versus them" than in the more capacious sense that includes every single American.



作者多次使用“we”,从诉诸于德(ethos)的角度拷问读者内心是否已经背离了建国文献的初衷,并解释到所谓的“we”是一种更广义的公民意识。



There are no quick fixes to our senseof disconnection, but there may be a way to restore our sense of what we oweeach other across the lines of class, race, background—and, yes, politics and ideology.



作者用过渡段引出下文谈及的社会问题,即我们可以重建人与人之间的平等和互助的公民意识。



Last week, the Aspen Institute gathereda politically diverse group of Americans under the banner of the “Franklin Project,” named after Ben, todeclare a commitment to offering every American between the ages of 18 and 28 achance to give a year of service to the country. The opportunities wouldinclude service in our armed forces but also time spent educating our fellowcitizens, bringing them healthcare and preventive services, working with theleast advantaged among us, and conserving our environment.


本段作者用轶事(anecdote)的手法来引出某权威机构宣布了18-28岁的美国公民需要参加1年以上的包括了各个领域的国家公共服务。这一手法让读者感受到了共鸣。



Service would not be compulsory, but itwould be an expectation. And it just might become part of who we are.


“Not compulsory, but it would be anexpectation”,这个措辞(diction)让作者站到了读者的立场,让读者意识到这一措施是合乎情理的,从心里上更能接受公共服务的要求。



The call for universal, voluntary service is being championed by retired U.S. Army Gen. Stanley Mc Chrystal, inleague with two of the country's foremost advocates of the cause, John Bridge land, who served in the George W. Bush administration, and Alan Khazei, co-founder of City Year, one of the nation's most formidable volunteer groups. The trio testifies to the non-ideological and nonpartisannature of this cause, as did a column last week endorsing the idea from Micheal Gerson, my conservative Post colleague.



  这一段作者引用了三个退役将军Stanley Mc Chrystal, John Bridge land 和Alan Khazei对志愿活动的支持,从理性角度让读者更信服公共服务号召的合理性。



  “We’ve are markableopportunity now,” Mc Chrystal says, “to move with the American people away from an easy citizenship thatdoes not ask something from every American yet asks a lot from a tiny few.” We do, indeed, owe something to our country, and we owe an enormousdebt to those who have done tour after tour in Iraq and Afghanistan.



  作者使用来自Mc Chrystal的权威引言(expert quotes)进一步阐释了为什么美国民众需要志愿活动,权威的话增加了论证的可信度。

  同时本段还采用了重复(repetition)这一修辞手法,连用二个“owe” 更有力度的指出了我们对国家的亏欠。



Mc Chrystal sees universal service as transformative. "It will change how we think about America and how we think about ourselves," he says. And as a former leader of an all-volunteer Army, he scoffs at the idea that giving yound Americans a stipend while they serve amounts to "paid volunteerism," the phrase typically invoked by critics of service programs. "If you try to rely on unpaid volunteerism," he said, "then you limit the people who can do it. ... I'd like the people from Scarsdale to be paid the same as the people from East L.A."



  作者使用来自Mc Chrystal的权威引言(expert quotes)来强调这一服务的意义菲方,权威的话增加了论证的可信度。使用“transformative”(改革)而不是“change”,这个措辞强调了这一服务的重大意义。



There are real challenges here.Creating the estimated 1 million service slots required to make the prospect ofservice truly universal will take money, from government and privatephilanthropy. Service, as Mc Chrystal says, cannot just be a nice thing thatwell-off kids do when they get out of college. It has to draw in the leastadvantaged young Americans. In the process, it could open new avenues forsocial mobility, something the military has done for so many in the past.



作者使用数据论据(statistics)来说明公共服务所面临的一些挑战。



Who knows whether the universalexpectation of service would change the country as much as Mc Chrystal hopes.But we have precious few institutions reminding us to join the Founders inpledging something to each other. We could begin by debating this proposal in away that frees us from the poisonous assumption that even an idea involvingservice to others must be part of some hidden political agenda. The agenda hereis entirely open. It’s based on the belief that certain unalienable rightsentail certain unavoidable responsibilities.


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发表于 2018-11-13 17:43:06 | 显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-11-15 17:20:09 | 显示全部楼层
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