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TPO46托福阅读文本及答案解析(The Commercial Revolution in Medieva...

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发表于 2018-11-6 11:42:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1. According to paragraph 1, one effect of the increased use of cash was that 【事实信息题】
  A an individual merchant no longer performed all aspects of trading operations
  B a company's home office declined in importance
  C merchants no longer had to transport their goods to distant places
  D the volume of trade declined in areas lacking silver mines
  答案:A
  解析:根据原文Business procedures changed radically. The individual…evolved into an operation involving three separate types of merchants…可知,A选项正确。

  2. The word “radically”, in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A fundamentally
  B quickly
  C unexpectedly
  D gradually
  答案:A
  解析:radically在语境中的含义为“根本上,彻底地”。A选项的fundamentally意为”根本地”,故A选项正确。
  quickly 迅速地。 unexpectedly 意外地。 gradually 逐步地。

  3. The word oversaw" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A understood
  B included
  C delivered
  D supervised
  答案:D
  解析:oversee在语境中的含义是“监督,审查。”D选项的supervise的含义为“监督,管理”。故D选项正确。
  understood 理解。 included包括。delivered 递送。

  4. According to paragraph 2, which of the following was NOT an effect of the change in business procedures? 【否定事实信息题】
  A An increase in credit sales
  B The use of courier services between cities
  C The adoption of simpler accounting procedures
  D The improvement of roads
  答案:C
  解析:A选项对应原文The growth of mutual trust among merchants facilitated the growth of sales on credit… B选项对应原文Regular courtier service among commercial cities began. D选项对应原文Tolls on roads became high enough to finance. C选项的表述与原文Commercial accounting became more complex的说法不符,错误。

  5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 【句子简化题】
  A Credit sales and bills of exchange were devices that merchants developed in order to increase their mutual trust.
  B Merchants developed ways to finance their sales without having to rely on slow and dangerous shipments of coins.
  C Greater trust among merchants led to an increase in credit sales and to the use of bills of exchange that made the shipping of coins unnecessary.
  D Merchants began to trust one another when it became too slow and dangerous for a single merchant to ship coins.
  答案:C
  解析:原句的核心内容为:Mutual trust facilitated the growth of sales on credit and led to new development such as the bill of exchange. C选项的核心与原句的核心吻合,故为正确答案。

  6. According to paragraph 3, Hanseatic merchants benefited by all of the following EXCEPT 【否定事实信息题】
  A the use of trading centers in distant cities
  B a new system of recording commercial transactions
  C the opening of overland trade routes across northern Europe
  D access to markets in about 200 cities
  答案:C
  解析:A选项对应原文Hanseatic merchants established foreign trading centers. B 选项对应原文 Hanseatic merchants had developed an important business technique, the business register. D选项对应原文 ..to include about 200 cities from Holland to Poland. C 选项原文没有提到,错误。

  7. The word "decisive" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A probable
  B determining
  C helpful
  D limiting
  答案:B
  解析:desicive的语境含义为“决定性的”。B选项的determining意为”决定性的“,与语境意思吻合,故为正确选项。
  probable可能的。helpful有帮助的。 limiting 限制性的。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-6 11:43:09 | 显示全部楼层
  8. Why does the author provide the information in paragraph 4 that the commercial classes never exceeded 10 percent of the population? 【修辞目的题】
  A To argue that the wealth created by the commercial revolution benefited only a small number of people
  B To challenge the view that the commercial classes made up a majority of the population of Europe
  C To suggest a reason that the commercial revolution ended around A. D. 1300
  D To emphasize the point that the commercial revolution was brought about by a small part of the population
  答案:D
  解析:根据原文One remarkable aspect of this change was that the commercial classes constituted a small part of the total population—never more than 10 percent.可知, never more than 10 percent是对前一句话的解释。故D选项正确。

  9. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was associated with the rise of modern states? 【事实信息题】
  A Increased wealth for the ruling classes
  B The weakening of the aristocracy
  C The decline of the middle class
  D A reduction in taxes
  答案:B
  解析:根据原文alliances with the middle classes were to enable kings to weaken aristocratic interests and build the states that came to be called modern. 可知,B选项正确。

  10. The word "alliances" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A transactions
  B communications
  C partnerships
  D conflicts
  答案:C
  解析:alliance的语境含义为”联盟、同盟“。C选项的partnership的含义为”伙伴关系“,与语境吻合,为正确答案。
  transaction 交易。 communications 交流。conflicts矛盾。

  11. According to paragraph 5, the most important result of the commercial revolution was to 【事实信息题】
  A simplify the organization of European society
  B provide employment to agricultural workers
  C encourage merchants to become community leaders
  D change Europe from a rural to a more urban society
  答案:D
  解析:根据原文The slow but steady transformation of European society from almost completely rural and isolated to relatively more urban constituted the greatest effect of the commercial revolution…可知,D选项正确。

  12. Paragraph 5 supports which of the following inferences about the commercial revolution between ad 1000 and 1300? 【事实信息题】
  A It had very little impact on social attitudes and values.
  B It brought about major political changes throughout Europe.
  C It lessened the influence of the church.
  D It increased the population of small towns.
  答案:A
  解析:根据原文, commercial revolution并没有导致political changes,故B选项错误。根据原文The nobility and churchmen determined the predominant social attitudes, values and patterns …可知,C选项错误。根据原文Most towns remained small可知,D选项错误。故根据排除法可知A选项正确。
  13.略
  14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. 【概要小结题】
  Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong To remove an answer choice, click on it
  To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT
  During the High Middle Ages (A.D. 1000-1300), Europe underwent a commercial revolution.
  Answer Choices
  Merchants adopted new accounting and trading procedures to make long-distance trading more efficient.
  The faster transportation made possible by improved roads expanded the variety of goods that could be brought to European towns from far away.
  The increasing importance of commercial trade led to a decline in the influence of traditional sources of power, such as kings and church leaders.
  The mining of silver improved the security of commercial transactions by allowing coins to replace credit and bills of exchange as the means of exchange.
  The Hanseatic League was an association of European towns that obtained shipping, trading, and financial benefits for its members.
  European society became increasingly urban, with better living conditions and a stronger centralized government.
  答案:AEF
  解析:根据原文第一段和第二段的Business procedures changed dramatically 和Commercial accounting became more complex可知,A选项正确。
  B选项的隐含的因果逻辑关系在原文没有对应点,错误。
  C选项的表述与原文第5段的The nobility and churchmen determined the predominant social attitudes, values….不符。
  D选项的allowing coins to replace credit的说法与第2段的 a device that made … coins unnecessary的说法不符。
  E选项对Hanseatic League的描述与第3段的表述吻合,为正确选项。
  F选项对应原文to relatively more urban 以及which meant a higher standard of living,为正确选项。

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