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TPO45托福阅读文本及答案解析(Feeding Strategies in the Ocean)

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发表于 2018-11-6 11:52:51 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  1.The word "severe" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A extreme
  B complex
  C basic
  D immediate
  答案:A
  解析:severe意为“严峻的”。A选项的extreme意为“极端的”,符合语境,故为正确答案。
  complex 复杂的。 basic基本的。 immediate立即的。

  2. What can be inferred from paragraph 1 about why energy conservation is not a high priority for ocean animals in coastal waters during the spring? 【推断题】
  A Those animals are least active during the spring
  B Those animals have a plentiful supply of food
  C Those animals have to expend energy to avoid predators.
  D Those animals store energy during the colder seasons.
  答案:B
  解析:根据原文In the open sea, animals can often find food reliably available in particular regions or seasons (e g., in coastal areas in springtime). In these circumstances…由此可以推断, 在春季,沿海区域的动物有充足的食物供应,故B选项正确。

  3. What can be inferred from paragraph 2 about fish? 【推断题】
  A Most fish feed on plankton.
  B Fish tend to avoid well-illuminated areas.
  C Most fish species are not filter-feeders.
  D Few fish species are successful in the near-surface layers.
  答案:C
  解析:根据原文Even fishes can become successful filter-feeders in some circumstances. 可推断,多数的fish并不是filter-feeders. 故C选项正确。

  4. According to paragraph 2, how do sardines and anchovies obtain food near the surface of the ocean? 【事实信息题】
  A They rely on the large quantities of food resources also available to local carnivores.
  B They capture the larvae of some crustaceans.
  C They feed on the organisms left over by commercial fisheries.
  D They obtain algae by using their gills as filters.
  答案:D
  解析:根据原文Although the vast majority of …These small fishes use their gill filaments to strain out the algae that dominate such areas. 可知,sardines和anchovies是通过它们的腮获取食物的。

  5.略
  6.略

  7. The word "scarcity" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A speed
  B variety
  C lack
  D size
  答案:C
  解析:scarcity意为“不足,缺乏”。 C选项的lack意为“缺乏”, 故C为正确选项。
  speed 速度。 variety 多样性。 size尺寸。

  8. According to paragraph 4,deep-water filter-feeders have adopted all of the following ways to obtain food EXCEPT 【否定事实信息题】
  A developing larger filtering systems
  B capturing prey using sticky tentacles
  C swimming up to the surface at feeding time
  D searching in ocean layers that contain a substantial amount of particles
  答案:C
  解析:A选项对应原文…there have larger filtering systems.
  B选项对应原文Alternative methods of…. and sticky tentacles.
  D选项对应原文Another solution for… forage in particular layers of water where the particles may be more concentrated.
  C选项原文没有提到。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-6 11:53:16 | 显示全部楼层
  9. Why does the author include the information that animals in the deep ocean place an emphasis on lures" and have evolved "elongated appendages”? 【修辞目的题】
  A To argue against the view that animals in the deep ocean use more energy to find food than do animals in shallow waters
  B To emphasize the importance of an am mars ability to control a large volume of water
  C To identify some feeding strategies that animals have developed to minimize their energy expenditure
  D To give examples of body structures that help those animals move quickly in deep ocean waters
  答案:C
  解析:根据原文In the deeper waters of the oceans, there is a much greater tendency for animals to await the arrival of food particles or prey rather than to search them out actively (thus minimizing energy expenditure).可知, 深海动物这么做的目的就是minimizing energy expenditure. 括号中的信息在解题时也需要引起注意。

  10. The phrase "coping with" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A Absorbing
  B finding
  C approaching
  D managing
  答案:D
  解析:cope with意为“处理,解决。”D选项的manage意为“处理,管理”,故为正确选项。
  absorb 吸收。find发现。approach 接近。

  11. The word "flexible" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
  A huge
  B adaptable
  C powerful
  D precise
  答案:B
  解析:flexible意为“灵活的”。B选项的意思是“能适应的”,故为正确选项。
  huge 巨大的。 powerful强有力的。precise精确的。

  12. According to paragraph 5, why do some fish swallow their prey whole? 【事实信息题】
  A Their teeth are too large to allow for cutting prey.
  B They have no jaw muscles to allow chewing.
  C Swallowing prey whole results in a higher net energy gain.
  D Chewing can cause their jaws to dislocate.
  答案:A
  解析:根据原文Very large or long teeth provide almost no room for cutting the prey into a convenient size for swallowing, the fish must gulp the prey down whole.可知,fish吞下整个prey的原因是它们的牙齿太大了。故A选项正确。

  13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. 【句子插入题】
  Such a passive approach requires those animals to develop specialized methods of acquiring food.
  Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
  答案:B
  解析:插入的句中有代词such, 所以插入点之前一定谈到了a passive approach, 所以一定不会插入A处。插入点A处后面的句子讲到了深海动物获取食物的方法,插入点B处后面的句子谈到了这种方法的结果。插入点C处谈到了Another consequence….由此可知插入B处最为合适。

  14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage This question is worth 2 points. 【概要小结题】
  Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.
  To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT
  Ocean animals have developed various strategies for maximizing energy input from food.
  Answer Choices
  Large carnivores near the ocean surface feed mainly on organic matter left over after it passes through the filters of the filter-feeders.
  Even in deep ocean layers where prey is relatively hard to find, filter feeding is still the least energetically-demanding method of obtaining food.
  Animals in deeper water have evolved strategies and body structures that allow them to use as little energy as possible in obtaining food.
  Near the surface of the water, many animals obtain food by using specialized body parts to filter plankton from the water.
  Filter-feeding is more common in shallow water, where there is a higher concentration of organic matter than there is in deeper water.
  At deeper ocean levels plankton is relatively rare, requiring animals at those levels to actively search for their food sources.
  答案:CDE
  解析:A选项的organic matter应为plankton.
  B选项的the least energetically-demanding与第4段的There are, therefore, …and some of those that are there have larger filtering systems to cope with the scarcity of particles.表述矛盾。
  C选项对应原文的Alternative methods of active or passive… and sticky tentacles.
  D选项对应原文的In the near-surface layers…through a specialized anatomical structure.
  E选项对应原文的Another solution for such animals is .. where the particals may be more concentrated.
  F选项的说法在原文没有提到。

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