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TPO45托福阅读文本及答案解析(Wind pollination)

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发表于 2018-11-6 11:55:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
1. The word "drawback" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
A other side of the issue
B objection
C concern
D problem
答案:D
解析:drawback 缺点,不利条件。在语境中的含义为“不利条件”。D选项的problem意为“问题,难题”,与drawback在这里的含义相符,故为正确答案。other side of the issue事情的另外一方面。 objection缺点,缺陷。 concern关心,关注。

2. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about pollen production? 【推断题】
A Pollen production requires a significant investment of energy and resources on the part of the plant.
B The capacity to produce pollen in large quantities is a recent development in the evolutionary history of plants.
C Plants in the tropics generally produce more pollen than those in temperate zones.
D The highest levels of pollen production are found in plants that depend on insects or birds to carry their pollen.
答案:A
解析:根据原文的wind is good at moving pollen a long way可以推断pollen production是需要energy的, 根据Pollen,…. is usually carried from plant to plant…可知, pollen production是需要resource的。故A选项正确。
B选项的说法无中生有。
C选项的比较关系在原文无法得出。
D选项对highest levels of pollen production的传播方式的说法也是无中生有的。

3. According to paragraph 1, wind-pollinated trees are most likely to be found 【事实信息题】
A in temperate forests
B at lower latitudes
C in the tropics
D surrounded by trees of many different species
答案:A
解析:根据原文的For the relatively few… temperate forests… this is quite a safe gamble.此句中的this根据前文可知就是”风传播“,所以 wind-pollinated trees很有可能会在temperate forests里发现。

4. Paragraph 1 supports which of the following as the reason animals are a safer bet than wind as pollinators when the individual trees of a species are widely separated? 【事实信息题】
A Animals tend to carry pollen from a given flower further than the wind does.
B Animals serve as pollinators even where there is little wind to disperse the pollen.
C An animal that visits a flower is likely to deliberately visit other flowers of the same species and pollinate them.
D Birds and insects fly in all directions, not just the direction the wind is blowing at a given moment.
答案:C
解析: C选项意为光顾某一种花的animals很有可能会光顾同一种花的另外一朵花并对其授粉。这完全可以构成题干的观点成立的理由之一。
A选项的further的说法无依据。
B选项并不能表明题干的safer的理由。
D选项的fly in all directions的说法无中生有。

5. In paragraph 1, the author compares pollen moved by wind with letters thrown off roofs in order to 【修辞目的题】
A explain why there are relatively few species of trees that depend on wind pollination
B compare natural, biological processes with human social practices
C make a point about the probability of wind-blown pollen reaching a tree of the same species
D argue against the common assumption that the tallest trees are the most likely to employ wind pollination
答案:C
解析:原文的It is like trying to get a letter….的例子紧随Wind is very good at moving pollen a long… and only birds can get pollen anywhere near as far.的说法之后,就是为了说明前面的观点。即:风传播是有可能将花粉授予同一物种的。故C选项正确。

6. Paragraph 2 suggests that wind-pollinated plants do not have bright petals, nectar, and scent for which TWO of the following reasons? To receive credit, you must select TWO answers. 【双选题】
A They interfere with pollination by wind.
B They are easily damaged by wind.
C They are unnecessary.
D They reduce the amount of pollen that can be produced.
答案:AC
解析:A选项的interfere with对应原文中的impediment。 C选项的unnecessary对应原文的insignificant-looking.

7. The word "respectively” in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
A over time
B separately
C in that order
D consistently
答案:B
解析:respectively意为“各自地”,B选项的separately意思为“分开地”,与separately是近义词,故B为正确选项。
over time 久而久之。 in that order以那样的顺序。 consistently一贯地,一致地。

8.According to paragraph 3, why do most deciduous wind-pollinated trees produce their pollen in the spring? 【事实信息题】
A To avoid competing with evergreen conifers, which flower in the fall or winter
B So that the leaves of the trees receiving the pollen will not prevent the pollen from reaching the trees' stigmas
C Because they do not have enough energy to produce new leaves and pollen at the same time
D In order to take advantage of the windiest time of year
答案:B
解析:定位到原文Most deciduous wind-pollinated 。。。 to reduce the surrounding surfaces that “compete” with 他和stigmas for pollen. 此句中的目的状语to reduce。。。回答了题干的why提问, 即B选项为正确答案。

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 楼主| 发表于 2018-11-6 11:55:58 | 显示全部楼层
9. According to paragraph 4,which of the following is NOT an adaptation that helps ensure that pollen travels as far as possible? 【否定事实信息题】
A Pollen-producing flowers and catkins are located at or near the top of the tree.
B Trees grow at least 100 meters away from each other.
C Dangling catkins release pollen only when the wind is blowing hard.
D Pollen is not released during rain storms or when the air is damp.
答案:B
解析:A选项对应原文Pollen produced high in the top branches is likely to go further.
C选项对应原文dangling catkins like…is strong enough to bend them…
D选项对应原文…or being knocked out of the air by rain.
B选项与题干所问无关,错误。

10. The word "significant" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
A sufficient
B considerable
C increasing
D small
答案:B
解析:significant意为“大量的”。B选项的considerable也有”大量的“意思,故为正确答案。
sufficient充分的。 increasing不断增加的。 small小的。

11. The phrase “no wonder" in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】
A unsurprising
B understandable
C well-known
D unfortunate
答案:A
解析:no wonder意为“不足为奇的”, A选项的unsurprising正是“不令人吃惊的”含义,故为正确答案。
understandable可以理解的。 well-known出名的。 unfortunate 不幸的。

12. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 【句子简化题】
A Because smaller particles tend to stay trapped in the fast moving air, they are blown much farther than other grains.
B Smaller particles are trapped by the stigma when fast-moving air flows past it.
C Small particles that are whisked past the waiting stigma gain speed and are often trapped in the fast-moving air.
D While smallness helps pollen travel farther, it also makes it more likely to be blown past the stigma.
答案:D
解析:原句but表示转折。句子核心:小颗粒可能会被吹远但也可能被风吹过花的柱头。D选项对应原句的两个核心,句中while表示转折。

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. 【句子插入题】
This level of volume is important to ensure that at least some of the pollen reaches target tree, but dispersing the pollen is crucial as well.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
答案:B
解析:句中的代词This level of volume紧承并指代原文A插入口后的句中数字5.5 and 4 million grains percatkin,所以插入B处最为合适。

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. 【概要小结题】
Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.
To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT
Some plants depend on the wind to carry their pollen.
Answer Choices
Because there are few trees in temperate forests, it is safer to transport pollen by insects or birds.
Wind pollination is a safe reproductive strategy for trees in temperate forests where there are only a few dominant species and, therefore, many individuals of the same species.
Wind pollination requires production of a large amount of pollen, which must be released at the right time and under the right conditions to extend its range.
Most wind-pollinated trees are deciduous because evergreen needles compete with the stigma for pollen, making wind pollination uncertain.
Wind-pollinated plants usually have small petalless flowers which often grow in catkins that produce a very fine-grained pollen.
Wind-pollinated trees must grow in regions that are only moderately windy because strong winds will blow the tiny pollen grains past the stigma.
答案:BCE
解析:A选项的Because there are few trees in temperate forests的说法本身就是错误的。
B选项的说法对应原文For the relatively few dominant… this is quite a safe gamble.
C选项的说法对应原文第3段和第4段。正确。
D选项中的evergreen needles compete with the stigma的表述与原文第3段的表述不符。
E选项的表述与原文第2段的表述一致,正确。
F选项的表述与第5段的Small grains may be….stigma的表述不符,错误。

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发表于 2018-11-21 17:33:21 | 显示全部楼层
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